Artmo Mateusz Omelan Artmo Mateusz Omelan
28 09.2016
76 komentarze
autor: Mateusz Omelan

Wszystko, co nas otacza zbudowane jest w oparciu o jedną podstawową zasadę. Rządzi ona ustanowionym porządkiem i nadaje harmonię wszystkiemu. Zastanawiasz się co to takiego? Chodzi o złotą proporcję zwaną inaczej boską. Jest ona powszechnie wykorzystywana w grafice i designie, tworząc idealne kompozycje.

 

Aby móc zrozumieć, o co dokładnie chodzi ze złotym podziałem, trzeba dowiedzieć się  co nieco o ciągu Fibonacciego, ponieważ to właśnie on stoi za boską proporcją. Otóż na przełomie XII i XIII wieku włoski matematyk z Pizy opracował ciąg liczb, w którym każda kolejna liczba jest sumą dwóch poprzednich. Tak więc ciąg wyglądał tak: “1,1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144…..” Z pozoru nie robi to wielkiego wrażenia, bo co jest w tym takiego trudnego? Cała zagadka tkwi jednak w proporcji. Fibonacci zauważył, że stosunek dwóch sąsiadujących ze sobą liczb w jego ciągu zawsze wynosi ~1,61, czyli tyle samo co znana już od starożytności liczba φ (fi).  Wysnuł więc wniosek, że za całą harmonią naszego świata stoi właśnie ta liczba. Zauważył to, obserwując otaczającą go przyrodę. Kształt kwiatu słonecznika, porządek gałęzi rosnących na pniu drzewa, muszle, spirale galaktyk itp. To wszystko opisuje liczba  φ. Co ciekawsze, nawet ludzkie ciało jest zbudowane zgodnie ze złotym podziałem. Chodzi o stosunek kości przedramienia, licząc od pojedynczych kości policzków przez długość dłoni w proporcji do kości promieniowej. Wszystko podporządkowane jest boskiej proporcji. Ciekawe jest to, że najprawdopodobniej starożytni artyści i architekci wykorzystywali złoty podział, nawet o tym nie wiedząc. Piramidy, czy grecki Panteon są również odzwierciedleniem liczby φ.

 

Boski porządek w projektowaniu

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Jak już wcześniej zostało powiedziane, złoty podział towarzyszy niemalże wszystkiemu, co nas otacza. Jego obecność powszechna jest również w projektowaniu stron WWW i budowaniu kompozycji. Dobrym przykładem jest podział witryny na treść główną i panel boczny. Jeżeli zostanie zastosowana odpowiednia proporcja tych dwóch elementów, to większość użytkowników stwierdzi, że kompozycja jest przyjazna dla oka. Dlaczego tak się dzieje? Tego nie wiemy. W naturę człowieka wpisane jest to, że wszystko, co kieruje się zasadami złotego podziału, jest atrakcyjne wizualnie.

 

Wezwanie do akcji

ikea-miniaturaNational Geographic

Najważniejsze w projektowaniu stron jest to, żeby nakłonić użytkownika do konkretnej akcji. Aby to zrobić, należy podzielić stronę spiralą nakreśloną zgodnie z zasadami złotego podziału i w jej centralnej części umieścić przycisk, hasło lub cokolwiek innego, co ma wzywać do konkretnego działania. Takie rozmieszczenie gwarantuje to, że użytkownik zwróci uwagę na punkt, na którym nam zależy.
Dobrym przykładami zastosowania złotego podziału są strony gigantów takich jak IKEA, National Geographic czy logo iCloud. Ciekawostką jest to, że projektant odpowiedzialny za logotyp usługi iCloud publicznie stwierdził, że nie sugerował się boskim podziałem podczas pracy. Jest to dowód pokazujący, jak często projektanci pracują z wykorzystaniem ciągu Fibonacciego całkowicie nieświadomie. Świadczy to mimo wszystko o ich dużej wiedzy z zakresu kompozycji.

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Nie tylko sztuka i przyroda

Złote proporcje występują niemalże w każdej dziedzinie, którą zajmuje się człowiek. Można je odnaleźć w muzyce, malarstwie, estetyce, architekturze, psychologii, projektach technicznych, optymalizacji i co ciekawe finansach. Złoty podział stosowany jest w wielu algorytmach handlowych oraz strategiach.

Jak więc widzisz, złota spirala ma bardzo szerokie zastosowanie, które człowiek zna już od dawna. Czy jest to emanacja boskiej siły na ziemi? Czy ziemia i galaktyki celowo zostały stworzone zgodnie ze złotym podziałem? Na te pytania nigdy nie uzyskamy odpowiedzi, ale intrygujące jest to, że boska proporcja towarzyszy nam w każdym aspekcie życia. Jedni nazwą to przypadkiem inni naciąganą teorią. Niepodważalny jednak jest fakt, że nasze mózgi widząc kompozycje opartą o ciąg liczb Fibonacciego, odbierają je jako atrakcyjne wizualnie.

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